Recapping Last Week’s Market

A quick video looking at the sudden rise in markets last week and what conclusions we can draw from it.

Information in this commentary is for informational purposes only and not meant to be personalized investment advice. The content has been prepared by Adrian Walker from sources believed to be accurate. The opinions expressed are of the author and do not necessarily represent those of ACPI.

The Trump Effect

Over the weekend investors got a chance to read the fine print on the faustian bargain they had with President Donald Trump. Since Trump’s election night win, markets had jumped significantly. The promise of stimulus spending, tax cuts and a renewed focus on deregulation had given investors a “sugar rush”, and eclipsed the more basic concerns about Trump’s general lack of suitability to be president.

dow-jones-since-election

But with the stroke of a pen investors were being reminded about how quickly Trump’s essential character and the presidency he promised could bring chaos and confusion. On Friday Trump signed an executive order to temporarily restrict accepting refugees from seven predominantly muslim countries. The order was vague, poorly thought out, badly executed and quite possibly illegal. Confusion reigned and initially the order was applied to people with legal immigrant status in the United States, including those with green cards.

The weekend was filled with protests at airports, backtracking by members of the administration, and out and out insurrection by members of the government who believed that the order was unconstitutional. Very quickly the official story has descended into the kind of decontextualized factual minutia that has come to characterize attempts to grapple with the truth in the age of the internet. Did Obama do something similar? Is this a Muslim ban or something more restrained? Is it more or less reasonable than it was presented? Accusations or partisan hackery and racism powered the internet and every conversation everyone had over the weekend and well into today.

The answers to these questions are largely immaterial. Trump is a populist and is likely going to do exactly what he said he would do on the campaign trail. That his cabinet is a group of people with little understanding of the nuances of government and that he may in fact be heading up an administration that is kleptocratic on par with a South American government is part of his current appeal. This weekend won’t be the last time controversial and vague (or illegal) orders are issued by this president and it won’t be the last time that they are met with organized resistance.

airport-protest

2016 was a year in which great changes to the status quo were made without many of those changes having an impact. Investors may have come to believe that the rising tide of angry populism won’t have any negative repercussions, or may even be positive. But this weekend brought investors face to face with the reality of unpredictable populist outsiders calling the shots. Volatility is in the cards, and even if (as many believe) that Trump will be good for the economy, his style is not slow and deliberate, but fast and reckless. Investing in the US, which has a strong economy, is unlikely to be smooth even if the trajectory is up.

trumps-executive-order-on-immigration-includes-a-plan-to-publish-a-weekly-list-of-crimes-committed-by-aliens

That’s the problem with Faustian bargains. You get what you want but what you sacrifice has typically been undervalued. The future for the American markets still looks good; but NAFTA talks loom, there are threats of trade wars, and a stable and predictable government seems unlikely. Investors should take note; its day 11 and there are another 4 years ahead. Even if we can’t predict tomorrow, we should acknowledge that tomorrow’s unpredictability may be the thing that investors have to make peace with.

How Imminent is the Next Market Crash?

image001This past week I received an article from a client regarding ideas about “wealth preservation” that made some good sense, and offered advice about calculating how much money you need for retirement. But while the premise was sound; that it makes sense to pursue investment strategies that protect your nest egg when your financial needs are already met, a one off comment about the future of the stock market caught my attention.

You can read the article HERE, but the issue I wanted to look at was the not so subtle implication that the US markets were now due for a correction. A serious one. Quoting the Wall Street Journal contributing writer William J. Berstein,

“In March, the current bull market will be six years old. It might run an additional six years—or end in April.”

This isn’t the first time I’ve heard this point before. It isn’t unique and sits on top of many other market predictioner’s tools, but its use of averages gives a veneer of knowledge the writer simply doesn’t possess.

Obviously we would all like to know when a market correction is due, and it would be great to know how to sidestep the kind of volatility that sets our retirement savings back. But despite mountains of data, some of the most sophisticated computers, university professors, mathematicians and portfolio managers have yet to crack any pattern or code that would reveal when a market correction or crash should be expected.

Which is why we still rely on rules of thumb like the one mentioned above. Is the age of a bull market a good indication of when we will have a correction? Probably not as good of one as the writer intends. Counting since 1871, the average duration of a bull market is around 4.5 years, making the current bull run old. But averages are misleading. For instance the bull markets that started in 1975, and 1988 (ending in 1987 and 2000 respectively) lasted for 153 months each, or just shy of 13 years. Those markets are outliers in the history of bull markets, but their inclusion in factoring the average duration of the bull markets extends the average by an additional year. Interestingly if you only count bull markets since the end of the second world war the average length is just over 8 years, but that would only matter if you think our modern economy has significant differences from an economy that relied on sailing vessels and horses.

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The fact is that the average age of bull markets is only that, an average. It has little bearing on WHY a bull market comes to an end. There was nothing about the age of the bull market in the 2000s, when people had become convinced of some shaky ideas about internet companies that make no money, that had any bearing on its end. The bull market that ended in 2008 had more to do with some weird ideas people had about lending money to people who couldn’t pay it back than it did with a built in expiration date. Even more importantly, the market correction of 1987 (Black Monday) was an interruption in what was an otherwise quarter century of solid market gains.

Taking stabs at when a market correction will occur by using averages like duration sounds like mathematical and scientific rigour, but actually reveals very little about what drives and stops markets. And a quick survey of the world tells us a great deal more about global financial health and where potential opportunities for investment are than how long we’ve been the beneficiaries of positive market gains.

If I Tell You This is Just a Correction, Will You Feel Better?

19_6_origA correction is typically defined as a drop of roughly 10% in the markets over a very short period of time. It’s often “welcomed” by investment professionals because it creates opportunities for new investments into liked companies that were previously trading above valuations considered appealing. Corrections are talked about as being necessary, beneficial and part of a normal and healthy market cycle, which all makes it sound somewhat medical. But in medical terms it falls under the category of being told your are about to receive 5 injections in short order and they are all going to hurt.

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S&P TSX From Bloomberg – October 2, 2014

For investors the past couple of weeks in the market has felt like many such injections. The US markets have had a significant sell off, as have the global, emerging, and Canadian markets. All of it very quickly. The sudden drop has erased many of the gains in an already slow year and eaten dramatically into the TSX’s return which had been one of the best.

From Bloomberg - October 2, 2014
Dow Jones Industrial From Bloomberg – October 2, 2014

For many investors any sudden change in the direction of the markets can immediately give the sense that we are heading into another 2008. As Canadian (and American) investors are now 6 years older and closer to retirement the stakes also seem much higher. So here are some reasons why you shouldn’t be concerned about the most recent market volatility, and what you can do to make them work to your advantage.

1. Everyone is nervous.

For several months people have been calling for a correction. Investor sentiment is neutral and consumer confidence has dipped, meaning that overall atmosphere is somewhat negative for the markets. But that can be a good thing. Market crashes and bust cycles typically show up when people are exuberant and feel euphoric about markets. Bad news is swept aside and the four most dangerous words in investing “This time it’s different” become the hallmark of the new bubble. It’s rare that negativity breeds an over exuberant market.

2. The Economy isn’t running on all cylinders.

There certainly have been encouraging numbers in the United States, and even recently Canada has had some improved economic numbers, but by and large there hasn’t been a big expansion yet in the economy. Unemployment is still high, especially in Europe and the labour force has shrunk (which can skew the unemployment numbers) while corporations continue to sit on enormous piles of cash, to their detriment. A market crash usually follows an overheated economy that begins to over-produce based on faulty views about future growth potential. That isn’t where we are yet.

3.  Corporations are really healthy, and so are investors.

Canadians may still have bundles of debt, but the US is a different story. American corporations and households have been heavily deleveraging since 2008. In fact corporations in the US look to be some of the healthiest in decades, showing better earnings to debt ratios than previously thought. Crashes have as much to do with over-production as they do with out-of-control borrowing. The two go hand in hand and both factors are currently missing from the existing economic landscape.

4. Energy is cheap. Like, really cheap. 

Remember when oil was more than $100 a barrel? High energy prices, and the expectation of future high energy prices can really put the kibosh on future returns and throw cold water all over the market. As we’ve previously said, energy is the lifeblood of civilizations and a steady supply of affordable energy is what separates great economies from poor ones. (Look, we tweeted this earlier! See, twitter is useful. Follow us @Walker_Report)

https://twitter.com/Walker_Report/status/517604263493894145

West Texas Crude Oil Price over the last 3 months - from NASDAQ - October 2, 2014
West Texas Crude Oil Price over the last 3 months – from NASDAQ – October 2, 2014

The arrival and growth of American gas production combined with changing technologies and increasing efficiencies on existing energy use means that global demand is slowing, while global supply is increasing. In fact in March of last year, the head analyst for energy at Citigroup published a paper describing exactly this trend of improved efficiency with new sources as a mix for lower energy prices in the long term. Whether this proves true over the next two decades is hard to say, but what is true is that cheap energy helps economies while expensive energy hinders it. Since economies have already adjusted to the higher price over the last few years, a declining price is a tailwind for growth.

Does this mean that there aren’t any risks in the market? Absolutely not. Europe is having a terrible year as a result of persistent economic problems and Russian intransience, and many Emerging Markets are showing the strain of continued growth, either through corruption or exceeding optimism about the future. Those pose real risks, but taken in the grand scheme of things our outlook remains positive for the markets.

How can I make this all work for me?

So what can you do as an investor to make a correction benefit you? The first piece of advice is always the same. Sit tight. Dramatic changes to your investments when they are down tends to lead to permanent losses. Secondly, rebalance your account periodically as the market declines. On the whole equity funds will lose a greater proportion of their value than fixed income, leaving a balanced portfolio heavier in conservative than growth investments. Rebalancing gives you a chance to buy more units of growth funds at a lower price while adding greater potential for upside as the market recovers. Lastly, if you have money sitting on the sidelines, down markets are great opportunities to begin Dollar-Cost-Averaging. For nervous investors this is a great way to ease into the markets even as markets look unstable. You can read about it here, but I recommend watching the movie below for a nice visual explanation. Now, take your medicine.

Looking for Dark Clouds Amidst Silver Linings

628x471This year got off to a rocky start. As of writing this post, the S&P 500 is down over -2% year-to-date (YTD), while other global markets have been similarly affected. The MSCI Global Index is down nearly -1%, the MSCI Emerging Markets index is also down -4.5%, as is the FTSE 100 (UK, -1.3%) and last year’s super-performer, Japan (-12.1%). This sudden “frothiness” has brought out the fear mongers and market doom-sayers. So regularly has the drum been beaten that 2014 should see a significant slide in market value that it has become a regular question in every meeting. (note: I did not update these numbers for the current week, however many of these returns have improved. In some cases quite dramatically)

The only problem is that any internet search will easily reveal market calls for a correction EACH and EVERY YEAR! This doesn’t mean that a correction won’t happen, in fact if there is one thing that we know about the markets its that corrections do, and must happen. We also know that the longer you go without a correction the closer you must be to having one. The problem is that we place value on people who claim to be able to predict a market downturn, even when we can’t actually predict when a downturn will actually occur. So the media keeps trotting out people willing to make outlandish market predictions knowing that it will grab headlines and eventually be right.

Except….

Except that there are lots of reasons to be cautious in the current market conditions. Not that we can predict when we might actually see a downturn, but there a lot of reasons why it makes sense to have defensive positions in your portfolio. For instance, we are currently at an all time high for IPOs, the most since 1997. There is some evidence that as IPOs peak its not uncommon to see a market correction, as less valuable companies try to cash in on market exuberance and professional investors try and sell their positions in less viable companies to bullish markets.

Other market metrics also seem to favour being on the defensive. Currently there are 84 companies on the S&P 500 with shares that are valued above 10x earnings. This means that investors are incredibly bullish about the future prospects when it comes to income growth. Many of these companies are in hi-tech sectors, like social media firms such as Twitter. For the record that is the most number of companies above this valuation since prior to the tech bubble in 1999.

Share buy backs also play a role here. If you aren’t familiar, with borrowing rates still very low many companies have taken the opportunity to borrow large sums of money and buy their outstanding shares back. Why? As the number of outstanding shares in the market declines the Earnings Per-Share goes up. This means that even if a company isn’t seeing actual growth in sales, it does mean that the the remaining shares receive a greater portion on the earnings, artificially increasing their value. In of itself this isn’t a problem, but it serves to increase the stock market while not seeing much in the way of actual economic growth.

Lastly we have also seen that the flow of money into ETF funds (passive investments that mimic indices) is also adding volatility to the markets. As investors remain concerned over negative surprises in the news, the high liquidity of ETFs causes even greater short term fluctuations in the markets as investors pull back. This is especially true in the Emerging Markets, and has had the unusual side effect of showing that actively managed funds have outperformed comparable ETFs.

In summary then there are four good reasons to believe that the markets may get more turbulent going forward. The lesson however is not to commit to a wholly negative or positive view of the markets, but rather continue to hold a diversified group of assets to deal with all market surprises, both good and bad!